One aspect of the hobby that will increase both your knowledge and enjoyment of an event, is tailoring your impression to the specific event. This allows you to learn more about the material culture as well as giving the public a better vision of the troops of the period.
The Common CS soldier during this campaign traveled light and looked hard. They still would have been covered in road dust, and their clothing and equipment would be coming to the end of its useful life span. The Commutation System was still in effect, though stumbling badly, and the Central Government Issue system was not fully functional yet. And the common soldier paid for this.
This is the event for the worn and torn and terribly dirty impression. Trousers with worn seats, or none, covered with cooking grease, and the legs threadbare are common, as well as jackets with elbows worn out, shoulders threadbare from carrying a musket and Knapsack. Shoes worn through, and in some cases barefoot. Hats with tuff's of hair sticking through. If you enjoy being a ragged rebel, now is the time to go full out.
Keep in mind the clothing a NC Soldier wore during this period, may or may not have differed from that which a VA private wore. The individual states did equip many a regiment, but there is no hard rule that says if you are from South Carolina you would have been wearing a South Carolina Frock Coat. But it is a detail grossly under represented in our hobby.
There are many choices, and your decision would be based upon what unit you are depicting:
Jean Cloth Kepi with a black or blue band, sometimes rising into a peak at the front. You can see good examples of these in the Confederate Version of Echoes of Glory. Havelocks were not worn by this period.
CS Jean "McDowell" caps: Properly blocked and lined Civilian Hats, perhaps folded into a "tri-corn", seen on troops from many states in early war photos.
There are several options for this as well. State Issued clothing, such as:
- NC Jean "Regimental" Coat
- NC Jean Shell Jacket
- GA Issue Shell Jacket
- South Carolina Issue Frock Coat
- Richmond Depot I
- Commutation Jackets
- Over shirts (battle shirts)
- Civilian Frock or Sack coats
If all you own is a Richmond Depot II or III style jacket, you can do a "quick fix" and make these jackets appear as Early War by stitching some black or blue tape trim to the collar and/or cuffs and/or epaulets. On many originals I have found, the stitching is very poorly done, so you do not have to be a master tailor to pull it off! Remember there is a general acceptance that the Richmond Depot Pattern Jackets were based off of earlier patterns, with cost cutting measures.
A few dollars in black or blue tape trim, and about ½ an hour, and you now have a jacket that is much more period for this timeframe.
As with Coats there are many state variations you could wear. Basic CS or Civilian trousers will suffice, perhaps you might want to add a black or blue tape stripe to the out side seam of the trousers, as was often seen in this period.
As with coats, most of the trousers worn during this period would be state issued or commutation pattern. They do not differ greatly from standard Richmond Pattern Foot Trousers, but were often seen with tape trim on the legs, once again black or blue, and were sometimes lined 8 inches up from the bottom, allowing the trouser to fall naturally over a pair of boots. Notice I said over a pair, not tucked in, except for mounted officers.
At this point in the War, CS or Civilian Shoes would prove to be the most common, as the number of Federal Shoes worn by CS troops has been highly over estimated.
This is one other area in which you can "appear 1862"
The most common canteen would have been the plain tin drum, with cloth or leather strap. This is an inexpensive purchase, and the whole unit would look "uniform" buy carrying these, as well as common white CS issue Haversacks.
Also, the wearing of Militia Pattern Knapsacks, such as the Kibler Pack in EoG is another way to look 1862. As with shoes, the number of CS troops carrying captured Federal Gear has been exaggerated in many cases, and especially for this campaign.
I have put together a few guidelines for CS Cav for the upcoming Maryland My Maryland event. We will take part in all of the scenarios for the event and do various duties. Our impression will be a basic ANV Cavalry impression for the fall of '62. There are only a few "prohibited" items to pay attention to. The other items are suggestions for accurately portraying the average cavalry trooper in fall of '62.
All troopers must carry a carbine and be proficient at dismounting and fighting on foot. Whether or not the method of dismounting is tying reins or link straps, the emphasis will be on the ability to fight on the ground as well as on horseback.
Because of the hard campaigning going all the way back to the Valley in the spring and all the battles in and around Richmond in the summer, the troopers would have been fairly ragged and equipment would have been well used. Most of the civilian equipment would have been used up and replaced with CS issue or to a lesser degree, US capture. The Jennifer saddle was in full production as well as other CS horse equipment. The troopers would also be exchanging their shotguns and other weapons brought from home to the better carbines, sabers, and revolvers if available. There would still be a mix of shotguns and other arms, but not as much as the spring campaign in the Valley. Overall, the troopers that moved with Lee into MD would have a more CS issue look and in general better armed than when they took the field in the spring.
Women in the Ranks
Modern Materials of any kind in uniform, equipment, and tack
Nylon Horse equipment
Brass Heart Breaststraps
For uniforms and basic requirements, see the guidelines for States Right infantry. The uniforms should be similar for cavalry.
A note of footwear. Would like to see as many troopers in shoes, Federal brogans or CS issue, as possible. Many units were issued shoes when the individual could not purchase boots on his own. Again, looking for variety in this category. This is plenty of photographic evidence of confederate troopers wearing boots, but the issue reports also indicate they were getting shoes as well. Boots should be of two piece construction.
Saber Belt: Federal issue or CS issue (Richmond Depot, state buckles etc) of proper construction and material. No rivets on CS belts.
Holster: Federal/CS or civilian pattern
Cap Pouch: Federal or CS issue. Should be an early version. If Federal, should be without rivets.
Cartridge Box: Federal or CS issue. This could also be an infantry box as well. Should be an early version.
Carbine Sling: Federal or CS copy. All carbines need to be properly carried. Muzzleloaders should be carried across the back. No carbines should be in boots or "strapped" to saddles.
Carbines: These are in no particular order, but again each trooper needs a carbine
Other pre-war carbine or long arm
It would still be too early for these long arms in any significant number. However, if this is the only long arm a trooper has, they will be acceptable.
Enfield Artillery or Cavalry Carbine
Richmond/Robinson Sharps Carbine
Saber: US 1840, 1860, CS manufacture, British, or French Cavalry Saber
Pistols: Only one per trooper.
1860 Colt Army
1851 Colt Navy
CS copy or manufacture
Saddle: Jennifer, or civilian saddle, '59 McClellan. We are looking for a variety of saddles. By the summer of '62, Richmond was at the height of the Jennifer production. This would have been the issue saddle for CS troopers outfitted or re-outfitted at this time. Would like to see many Jennifers in the ranks, but understanding that most reenactors have McClellans, they will ok. Again, looking for a variety.
Saddle Blanket: Federal, CS, plain civilian wool. No modern blankets or pads.
Bridle: Federal, CS variety, civilian, or halter/bridle combo
Halter: CS variety, Federal. Should see more CS halters then Federal. This is probably the most used and therefore most replace piece of tack. Reports show more issues of halters than any other piece of tack. Civilian is ok as long as correct material and hardware are used.
Breaststrap: Civilian models provided they are of correct construction and material. No brass heart breaststraps.
Saddlebags or Valise: US issue or CS valise. A CS valise, leather or canvas, would be a better look with a Jennifer saddle.
For personal items, see the guidelines for CS infantry. Again, the average trooper will look and carry many of the same things as his fellow infantry man. You will be responsible for you own rations and cooking. This will be a campaign event, so there won't be tents or a lot of mess equipment. Work with members of your unit to share the load for rations and cooking. Each trooper needs a canteen. Must have this item and not on a snap hook attached to side of the saddle. Should be carried on the person, but can be tied to the saddle with proper length strap.
The goal of these regulations is to give a general guideline for a cavalry impression. If you unit is interested in attending this event and has any questions regarding the regulations, please feel free to contact me to discuss the concern. If your unit has unit specific research that shows the unit carrying or being issued certain uniform, equipment, arms, or accoutrements not listed on the acceptable guidelines and you would like to carry at the event, please let me know.
1st Maryland Cavalry
Safety first, Safety last, Safety always.
Proper military rank structure will be observed. This means a corporal will command a gun, a Sergeant or Lieutenant a Section, and a Lieutenant or Captain, a Battery.
Only Proper Civil War Artillery drill with National Park Service modifications allowed. Refer to the 1861 "Instruction for Field Artillery" manual, or the 1863 Hunt, Barry and French drill per the "red book".
All drill including misfire drill must be demonstrated and performed to the satisfaction of the artillery commander or his designee.
Gun detachments should have at least 7 persons (including gunner)
Proper uniforms are to be worn at all times while serving a gun. Please see the uniform regulations.
No one under the age of 16 is allowed to serve on a gun detachment in any role.
No side arms or sabers allowed for any person while serving on any gun detachment.
Artillery commander has the right to stop a gun from firing at any time.
Only full scale Civil War artillery pieces with limbers allowed. No mountain howitzers allowed unless approved by artillery commander, and appropriate for battle scenario.
All artillery pieces will be inspected. Sponge covers must fit the bore properly.
Howitzers must have sponge heads that fit the chamber.
After each firing, bore must be wormed and sponged before reloading. Dry sponging after a wet sponging is acceptable.
Only civil war type friction primers are allowed for ignition of main charge. No wadding on top of charge is permitted.
All charges must be wrapped in foil and will be subject to inspection.
Bounty for Artillery will be $250 per gun.
Uniform Regulations As 1862 starts out, the cannoneer should be basically well shod and equipped as he is coming out of his first winter quarters.
Supplies from home are still being received and the ranks are starting to fill up from the first summer of war. As we go through the 2012 season, adjust your impression to reflect the situation that you have just been through.
Starting out, a properly trimmed jean or satinette Richmond Depot I or Commutation Jacket, or even a Civilian Sack coat is your best bet. If all you have is a Richmond Depot II you can trim it up in about 20 minutes with red tape on the collar, sleeves and epaulettes.
CS issue jean, satinette or broadcloth trousers, or civilian trousers would be prevalent.
Civilian or CS issue shoes would be common with the occasional boot still being seen.
This uniform, along with either a kepi or properly blocked civilian hat is your best bet for the Spring of 1862.
Combine that with Confederate issue belts, canteens ( tin drum), haversack and civilian blanket.
After the Seven Days battles you would be worn down a bit. You are still being uniformed from home using the commutation system and maybe a little from Richmond.
After all, you were close to the rail lines and Richmond's supply depot. If you were in the Valley with Jackson, you may have supplemented some of your worn out gear with Federal supplies but were still marching light.
After 2nd Manassas, you would have had another opportunity to up-grade your equipage with dis-carded Federal gear but still you were on the march. In general, ever since you left the battles around Richmond you have been on the move.
Moving on to Maryland, liberated Federal leather, knapsacks, haversacks and or canteens would be seen, but not in huge numbers. If you kept your original haversack, it would be dirty and greasy. You may have been lucky and picked up a Federal blanket and threw away your lice infested blanket.
However, use good sense with this stage of your impression. Federal gear would be seen but not in over-whelming numbers. The artillery was behind the infantry and unless you moved on through a retreating enemy, chances of obtaining Federal gear may have been slim. The infantry boys may have cleaned up the spoils.
By the Maryland Campaign your jacket would be worn, covered in road dust and mud from several months in the field non-stop.
Trousers would be thin and just as fatigued with the occasional growing hole. Grease smeared from cooking over a fire and dirty from powder residue and mud.
Slouch hats would be taking on their own character from daily use. Kepi brims would become deformed and most hat brass would have fallen off. Red Hat Cords would have come up missing. All headwear would be sun faded and sweat stained.
If your jacket was from home, put a little trim on it…..but don't overdo it. If you want a plain jacket, maybe put some ¼" wool tape or 1/8" wool piping down the legs of your trousers. Better yet, just go with a plain jeans jacket and trousers.
Shoes would be worn through, and worn out. Socks and or toes sticking out of them would be common.
Talk to your detachment members. Find out who is wearing what and try to mix it up. Not everyone should have a Federal canteen or tarred Federal haversack. Everyone should not have on the same color or trimmed jacket.
Talk as a group about your first person impressions. I have found if you give yourself a persona, you can tailor it and make better uniform decisions.
You may be from a wealthy family and therefore, fully trimmed and better quality clothing is normal. You may be the "dandy" of your mess. Or, you come from a dirt poor family, barley able to make ends meet.
Your mother or wife has to really struggle to get you a suit of clothes. When you do get them, they are of a rough woven quality, poorly dyed and are adorned with plain brass or wood buttons.
Or, you are in the middle. Your family has sent you a new jacket cut like the jacket you came home wearing last winter. They were able to get some nice brass floral buttons and even put a small amount of piping around the collar and epaulettes. Soldierly, but not over the top.
We will be portraying the Confederate Medical Department as it appeared in September 1862 during the Maryland Campaign. Therefore, some things correct in 1861 won't be done in 1862 and some appropriate for 1863 will not be seen in 1862.
As a specialty impression, all medical impressions MUST be approved by the event staff in advance per event regulations. We are limiting the medical department to one medical officer per regiment/battalion on the field, in addition to one hospital steward per regiment/battalion, detailed nurses and ambulance corps from the regiments/battalions. There will be no openly serving women in the medical department for this event. Any woman serving as a male on the field as part of the medical department must adhere to event registration guidelines.
Confederate Army Uniform regulations have been in place since June 1861 with modifications by War Department Circular June 3, 1862. A few officers would still be wearing gray state regulation officers uniforms with federal style shoulder ranks. The predominant uniform will be the double breasted frock coat with or without sleeve braid. Kepis with bound brim or slouch hats are both appropriate. Slouch hats should be of 19th century style, properly blocked and lined. Medical insignia for the hat should be in the minimum as most photographs do not show this. No braid on trousers is preferred. Officers sack coats are under represented and very appropriate. Like the frock coat, they should be tailored in a 19th century manner with or without rank. The most common type of button for the coats should be the Federal Staff of infantry button, with State and Confederate Staff being present but in the minority. CSA buttons are not correct for 1862 and should be swapped out for the event. High quality dress shirts are highly encouraged for all officers of the department. Even though medical officers were mounted, the most common type of footwear should be the brogan or civilian shoe. If boots are worn, they should be worn with the trouser leg over the boot.
Belts/ Sword Belts are preferred to be a folded leather belt of officer quality rather than thick bridle leather.
Sashes and swords will not be worn on the field of battle.
Side arms correct for 1862 my be carried at the officers discretion. Cap pouches and ammunition pouches will not be worn.
Officers should carry a canteen and a haversack for food. These can be private purchase or purchase from Quartermaster stores. It would be common to see an officer carrying two haversacks, one for food and one for his medical supplies/paperwork.
Unless you are serving as Chief Surgeon of Division or Senior Surgeon of Brigade, you will carry the rank of Assistant Surgeon unless otherwise approved by the Chief Surgeon of Division. The Senior Surgeon of Brigade may carry the rank of Surgeon or Assistant Surgeon at his discretion. Acting Senior Surgeon of Brigade will carry the rank of Acting Surgeon but wear Assistant Surgeon rank. Senior Surgeon of Brigade will have responsibility for a regiment/battalion on the field in addition to his Brigade duties, per 1862 Confederate Army Regulations.
All medical officers are expected to carry a haversack of dedicated 19th century medical supplies as recommended in the 1861 edition of the Manual of Military Surgery by Surgeon Julian J. Chisolm. In addition they should have a pencil, small notebook, dip pen and ink. The ink should NOT be India ink. Oak or Iron Gall ink is preferred. All reports should be submitted in ink.
All medical officers are expected to conduct sick call in their regiment/battalion each morning and turn in a copy of their Surgeons' Morning Report, either on the correct printed form or a form lined out and prepared by hand, to both the officer designated by the Regimental Commander and the Chief Surgeon of the Division through the Senior Surgeon of the Brigade.
All medical officers are also expected to turn in a copy of the Monthly Report of Sick and Wounded, either on the correct printed form or a form lined out and prepared by hand, for their regiment for either August or September 1862 by the end of the event. This can be prepared in advance of the event or completed at the event. (Contact the Chief Surgeon of the Division with any questions or for assistance.)
The camp of each medical officer will be marked with a red 4'x6' red flag, preferably of wool flag bunting in the manner of the 19th century originals. (For more information contact the Chief Surgeon of Division for guidance)
While we welcome modern medical professionals into the Medical Department, we are NOT reenactor EMS. Our primary responsibility is to provide the public and the other reenactors a 19th century experience with the Medical Department. Those with the appropriate medical certifications may bring along modern medical equipment in compliance with Maryland State law if they desire, but the modern medical emergencies will be primarily dealt with by Event EMS and all patients treated by our Department MUST be reported to the Chief Surgeon of the Division as soon as possible with a written report submitted as soon as possible following the treatment.
All medical officers will carry a 2'x2' yellow flag to be carried in their pocket or haversack at all times. This will only be removed and waved in the event of a real medical emergency to notify Event EMS. Unless it is being used to signal Event EMS, it should be kept out of sight at all times.
Hospital Stewards should wear the uniforms of a private. There are no surviving regulations, circulars, orders, photographs or uniforms which show that Hospital Stewards ware any special insignia or badge of rank and the only surviving uniforms worn by a Hospital Steward has no rank, insignia or badge.
Red flags will not be carried on the field, except to mark the locations of the Ambulances.
Each medical officer must bring a minimum of two Ambulance Corps badges (Black lettering printed on white card stock. See the Chief Surgeon for information regarding where to find these cards) to be issued to the soldiers detailed as Ambulance Corps during the battle. These will be collected at the end of the battle and kept by the medical officer, per General Order No 24, June 6, 1862, Headquarters Right Wing, Army of Northern Virginia.
Each medical officer is authorized a tent, either fly, common or wall. The tent chosen should be done with regard to the tentage of their regiment/battalion. If Regimental staff are sleeping under a fly tent, then a fly tent is recommended. If they are using a wall tent, then a wall tent is recommended. Consider sharing a tent with other officers on your regimental/battalion staff. Fly tents should NOT be set up as a "front porch" on your common or wall tent. If you have a fly in addition to your sleeping tent, it should be set up adjacent to but not connected to your sleeping tent. The regulation wall tent was 9'x9'. Available reproductions are made 10'x10' and this is the size wall tent which is preferred. If you use a common tent or fly tent, they should match as closely as possible the originals of the 1860s in size.
If medical equipment and supplies are present in your camp, they should either be stored in a tent, or packed in a manner which will prevent their theft or damage. They should remain in their closed cases or boxes and removed only as needed and the immediately replaced.
Inspections of the medical department may occur, so be prepared with your correct paperwork and supplies.
Even if your impression isn't 100% perfect, if you are willing to make some changes, we would be interested in having you join us at the event.
There are only a few prohibited items so please take note.
Aprons will NOT be worn upon the field of battle.
Sashes and swords will not be worn on the field of battle.
Ambulance badges on red cloth will NOT be worn. (Ambulance Corps will carry white cards printed with Ambulance Corps in black and the worn in the cap band of those members of the Ambulance Corps)
In September 1986, I experienced my first "national" event. As a young teenager I joined up with the 14th Tennessee Infantry, and for 2 days I was immersed in the Civil War, gaining new perspective and left awe struck and energized to learn more about this fascinating period of our history. 25 years later is it my goal to pass that experience on to you, the participants at Maryland, my Maryland – The 150th Anniversary of the Maryland Campaign.
Combining the best of both the campaign and garrison worlds, I am honored to be teaming one again with my good friend and partner, Michael Lavis, to bring you this remarkable event.
For the past 12years, we have brought you Fire on the Mountain 2000, Burkittsville, 2001, War on the James, 2003, To the Gates of Washington 2004, Summer of '62 in 2005, September Storm, 2007, At High Tide, 2008, Return to Manassas, 2010 and Along the Potomac, 2011. As a team, we have identified a repeated, documented success model, and it is based upon the following:
1. Historic Progressive Scenarios - with unit specific researched scenarios, historical force ratios, good combat distance, and background information so each unit can properly research their role in the event
2. Preservation Dollars - No organizer is getting paid. All proceeds from this event will be donated to Central Maryland Heritage Foundation and Britney's Hope Foundation. CMHL is the primary organization that helps preserve the South Mountain Battlefield Britney's Hope Foundation helps with the adoption of special needs children worldwide. The event is built on a business model that will insure a respectable donation on behalf of the reenactors in attendance.
3. Fun - Bringing back the fun of the hobby. We will have good battles, plenty of living history and reenactor education programs, good camping areas for both campaign and garrison troops,
4. Event rule enforcement - Most events have rules, but no one enforces them, causing the actions of a few to mar the weekend of the many. This will not happen at this event. There will be even handed polite but firm event rule enforcement. Please review the rules and regulations as listed on this site. These are not "hard core" rules, nor are they lax. They are basic quality and safety rules. For an organizer or commander this is not the "fun" part of the job (if there is one), but rather the hardest part, but one that is rightfully expected by the participants, and as such is the most important part of my job. I owe it to you that the actions of a few do not detract from the experience of the many.
5. Treating reenactors with respect.
6. Honoring and Remembering those Brave Boys of '62, of BOTH sides!
7. Public education - Our goal is to provide high quality demonstrations in order to better educate the attending public, and create in them a better sense of our collective history.
8.The Civil War Experience - To set the stage for each of you to truly experience September 1862, and provide the field on which each of you will excel.
Experiencing the Civil War- Isn't that what most of us joined the hobby for? Learning about them, replicating their actions. As Confederate Commander I will work hard for each of you so that you may experience the actions on the hallowed Slopes of South Mountain, and on the Sacred Fields at Antietam. From Crampton's Gap to the Sharpsburg Pike, our team will work hard to provide you with the sounds and sights and feel of those tragic days of September , 1862..
I ask each of you to take personal ownership of this event, and work together not only for ourselves, each other, the visiting public, but also in remembrance of the Brave Boys of 1862.
Duinn onior agus cuimhnimid!*
S. Christian Anders
States Rights Forces
* Gaelic- "To honor and remember"
Order of Battle
Bvt. Maj'r Gen'l S. Christian Anders, Command'g
Lt Colonel Richard Watters, AAG
Bvt. Lt Colonel George Heffner, Field Officer of the Day
Major Tom Piston, AIG
Major Bill Cross, QM
Major Doug Ozelious, Chief Engineer
Captain Robert Small, Chief Provost
Brig. Gen'l Jeff Stepp, Command'g, Southern Division
Brig. Gen'l Dave Pridgeon, Command'g, Southern Division
Gen'l Jake Jeanette, Command'g, Army of Northern Virginia
Captain Rob Bruno, Command'g
Captain Kevin Oyarzo, Command'g
Surgeon Harry Aycock